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Adi Kaal

Adikaal starts from the middle of the 10th century to the beginning of the 14th century. The poetry of this period has been divided into three categories Apabhramsha Poetry, Heroic Poetry and Miscellaneous Poetry. Apabhramsha Poetry includes the Siddha literature (750-1200), the Nath literature and the Jain literature. Siddha literature was written in the popular language and this echoed devotional themes combined with a strong erotic feeling.

Between the 7th and the 14th century, the poet Gorakhnath and his followers mainly composed the Nath literature. They avoided eroticism, scorned racial discrimination and put stress on moral values, using the Doha (couplet) and the Chaupai (quartet) styles in their poems. These compositions had a great influence on the Sant (devotional literature made popular by Rahim and Kabir et al) literature. During this period Jain poets like Swayambhu, Som Datt Suri, Sharang Dhar and Nalla Singh composed the Charit Kavyas, which propagate moral tenets and portrayals of Nature. Heroic Poetry was composed wholly in the native speech.

The Early Period was the age of invasions and turmoil, which greatly influenced poets who composed actual as well as imaginary accounts of the heroism of their patrons. Poems were usually written for the pleasures of kings, who were anyways quite accustomed to praise. Prithviraj Raso (Chand Bardai), Khuman Raso (Dalpativijay), Bisaldev Rao (Narpati Nalha) and Parmal Raso (Jagnik) are the major works of this age, and are lively renditions of battles and their outcomes.


Nine Unknown Men

Nine Unknown Men are a two millennia-old secret society founded by the Indian Emperor Asoka.